Latest since the 1980ies, when the first messages of certain dwindling resources surfaced, the re-thinking of our use of resources has started.
YET, it seems, that in Britain the "Empire Thinking", which did not include reasonable use of materials, is still prevalent.
On the continent the efforts to recycle started in the late 1980ies. Just with paper, cardboard and glass [separated by colors].
To separate compost able materials from the rest, has saved up to one third of transportation requirements.
Since then metal, laminated drink cartons, plastics of different kinds , ...have been collected in big bins on the streets.
Places for special recycling : paints lamps, .. are accessible with public transport.
The question of "strategic" materials and services and their securing with national borders should play a reasonable part of the thinking as well.
Energy from a non national company? Refuse-collection sent to Sweden, instead of heating and lighting public buildings/streets with energy from incineration, too far off??